IQ tests: A Brief History
It is generally thought to be the ratio of "mental age" to "actual age", with 100 being average.
Alfred Binet is considered to be the first to establish a test known as the Binet Scale.
In 1904 the French government asked him to develop a way to help determine which children needed more attention due to their mental abilities.
The examine had children follow certain orders, copy patterns, put things in order, name objects and arrange them properly.
Binet assumed that lower levels indicated a need for more help in school.
Henry Goddard translated Binet's work into English in 1908 and brought it to the United States.
He felt it was an excellent way to classify students in school.
He helped write the first American law on special education. He convinced American educators that testing should be universal, across the board and given to all children.
After World War I, the US government used them to determine soldier's leadership qualities etc. to ensure that they were placed in a position that best reflected their level of achievement.
In 1914 William Stern developed the notion of dividing a child's mental age by his chronological age.
Lewis Terman revised the Binet Scale calling it the Stanford-Binet Scale.
Later, David Wechsler created one based on verbal and performance subtests. He came up with the Deviation Quotient.
A person's score was established by his mental ability compared to the average individual at that same age.
Several factors are used by psychologists in determining giftedness. These include verbal tests, reading assessment, and others.
alone is generally not sufficient in determining giftedness.
Many schools use group administered tests such as the
Otis Lennon (OLSAT)
Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT).